Nawada district is situated in the southern part in Bihar and is one of the thirty-eight district of Bihar State. Nawada town is the administrative headquarters of this district. It occupies an area of 2,494 square kilometers (963 sq mi) and is located at 24.88N 85.53E. In 1845, it was established as a Subdivision of the Gaya district. On 26th January 1973, Nawada was formed as a separate district. The origin of the name Nawada is believed to lay in a corruption of the old name Nau-abad or the new town which was earlier known as ‘The Eliot Market (Bazaar)’. It is divided into two parts by Khuri River, the Portion on the left bank being the older, while that on right bank is modern and Contains public offices, sub-jail, dispensary and school. Famous “Sarvoday Ashram” inaugurated by Desh Ratana Dr. Rajedra Prasad and nourished by Shree Jai Prakash Narayan has enhanced the glory of Nawada.
Nawada town is situated in the Magadh division in south Bihar. Nawada is located at 24.88°N 85.53°E. It has an average elevation of 80 meters (260 ft) with an area of 2,492 km2 (962 sq mi). It is bounded in the North by the Nalanda District, in the East by Sheikhpura & Jamui District, in the west by Gaya district and Koderma & Giridih districts of the state of Jharkhand lie on the southern border of the district.
History & Cultural Background:
Nawada has been a place of historical imminence, King Brihadratha founded the Magadh Empire in the region and the area was dominated by many dynasties like Brihadratha, Maurya, Kanah and the Gupta that ruled over many states of middle and north India. The Surya Narayana Mandir of Handiya is earliest & it is supposed to be of Dwaparayuga. The Surya Narayana Mandir of Handiya is constructed by the King of Magadha Jarasandha, Jarasandha’s daughter Dhaniya was suffering from leprosy and used to stay this holy place every day for devotion. The Myth goes; she used to bathe in the nearby pond and was cured. Soon after Dhaniya established a place of worship of Maa Bhagwati in a close to village and a Shivalinga at Dhaniya hill, which is just away from main temple. Handiya is most remarkable place to visit for any one. It is beautifully surrounded on the north side by Rajgir Mountain and on the south by river. The Surya Narayana Mandir of Handiya is earliest and it is supposed to be of Dwaparayuga. Each year millions of people come to visit the holy place. The Surya Narayana Mandir is also famous for betel nuts like Magahi Pan (handiya). Historians believe this place was a reputed religious center for the Hindus in the period of Palas. From Nawada famous tourist places like Bodhgaya, Pawapuri, Nalanda (Nalanda University), Rajgrih are easily accessible at 1–2 hours drive by road. Train facilities are also accessible to Gaya and Kiul. It also shares border with Jharkhand. The mighty king Jarasandh whose birthplace was Tapoban and who fought with great Pandav Bhim who was the champion among the kings of the time. The history bears the testimony that Bhim has visited Pakaria village, which is three miles away from Nawada headquarter. The place Sitamarhi situated in the lap of Nawada was blessed when Sita Jee made it her above in her exile and gave birth to Lava. The village Barat was the abode of great epic maker Balmiki. In the southern side of Rajauli sub-division of Nawada, Sapt-rishi had made the place their abode. Great Lord Buddha and Lord Mahavira who are regarded, as the first lights of Asia loved this place very much. The king Bimbisar was one of the most beloved disciples. Truly every inch of this place is the witness that Lord Buddha and Lord Mahavir gave first priority to offer their mission to this place. The historical sermon of Lord Buddha was reveled for the first time here. The village Dariyapur Parvati in the Nawada District situated six miles north of Warisaliganj. There are ruins and relic of Kapotika Bodh Bihar. In the centre stands a famous temple of Avalokiteshwer. King Aditaysen founded the historical monuments in the village Apsar that is visible even today. Kurkihar enjoyed its esteemed glory in the Pal dynasty. It is about three miles North East away from Warisaliganj. Some significant temples and religious spots within the district are Panchmukhi Shobhnath, Sankat Mochan, Gonawa Jal Mandir & Bolta Pahad. Kakolat Waterfall is a picturesque waterfall in Nawada district, popular with tourists due to its scenic surroundings. The falls also play a role in Hindu mythology, when according to legend an ancient king was turned into a python by a rishi’s curse and lived within the falls. Folklore suggests that Krishna used to go there with his queens for taking bath. This is one of the best waterfalls in India. Water of this fall is cold for the whole year.
The area of the district falls in the Zone-III B, South West Alluvial Plain agro climatic zone of Bihar. The district of Nawada does not have any important perennial river. The topography of the district is plain and border area adjoining Jharkhand is rocky terrain & mountains. Climate and Rainfall:- The climate of the district is sub-tropical to sub-humid in nature. The district experiences severe cold during winter whereas on the other hand in summer it is very hot. The nights are generally hot from the end of May till the first break of monsoon. The climate is generally hot and dry, the winter temperature ranges from 16ºC to as low as 4 ºC whereas during the summer the mercury shoots to 46 ºC. During rainy season it becomes cooler and temperature drops to 35 ºC. Monsoon sets sometimes in the third week of June and it lasts till the end of September. The average annual rainfall in Nawada district is 996.5 mm.
The main rivers are the Sakri, Khuri, Panchane, and Bhusri by Kakolat, Tilaiya, and Dhanarjay. The beds of these rivers are shallow, wide and sandy. They are ephemeral in nature and are virtually in spate during the rainy season.
In the district there are five types of soils. These are (i) Loam, (ii) Sandy, (iii) Clay, (iv) Sandy loam and (v) Clay loam. The areas where these kinds of soils are generally found and the corresponding crops grown in these soils are described below: –
Loam – Found in Nawada, Sirdala and Akbarpur.
Sandy – Available in some parts of Nawada, Sirdala and Hisua blocks. It is suited for crops like Maize, Oil seeds and Groundnut.
Clay – Available in parts of Pakribarawan, and Kowakole blocks. It is suited for paddy, grams and wheat.
Sandy Loam – Found in the development blocks of Nawada, Warisalianj, Akbarpur, Narhat and Hisua. It is useful mainly for wheat, Maize and Paddy.
Clay Loam – Available in Rajauli and Sirdala blocks. It is useful for paddy, wheat and potato.
Nawada has a fairly good system of road communication. The NH-31 and NH-82 road run through the district. National Highway 31 runs roughly north-south through the western side of district, serving many villages and towns, including the administrative center of Nawada. The total length of both the Highways in the district is around 84 Kms. There are 4 State Highways in the district name SH-8 (Hisua-Sikandra), SH-83 (Bagibardiha-Warisaliganj), SH-85 (Rajauli-Gaya) & SH-103 (ManjhwayNarhat-Govindpur). State roads have the total length of 120 km. 90% of the total villages is linked to the rural and urban road facilities.
The district lies in the East Central Railway of Indian Railways; the Gaya–Kiul line crosses the district roughly east-west, and connects with the Bakhtiyarpur–Tilaiya line at Tilaiya Junction. Two express trains and several local trains run on the Gaya-Kiul line via Nawadah station. The nearest airport is Bodhgaya Airport, Gaya which is about 58 kilometers from Nawada.
Agriculture is the mainstay of livelihood and 78% people depend upon agriculture. The principal occupations of the people are rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry and casual labour work. During Kharif period most part of the work mass engaged themselves for about 4 months. Krishi Vigyan Kendra has been set up by ICAR, New Delhi at Gram Nirman Mandal, Sarvodaya Ashram, Sokhodeora, District Nawada, for rapid transfer of technology to the farmers’ fields. The operational area of this Krishi Vigyan Kendra is Nawada.
Nawada has no functional large industries and only some 18 small and medium enterprises (SME) are located in the city in addition to a few stone chips factories and rice mills, however, potential of industrial development may be explored. Kadirganj, located 6 km from Nawada, has a very old and famous silk small scale industry where many artisans carry out the activities of cleaning and weaving of silk. It has commercial and trading linkages with Bhagalpur, a city famous for its silk business including export of silk from India. Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd has identified Rajauli in Nawada district of Bihar as the possible site for creating additional 2,000-mW nuclear capacity in the state. There are great possibilities for agro-industries in this district. They include Rice Mill, Sugar industry, oilseed industry, Corn Flakes industry and Agriculture machinery industry.
Nawada district has its own glory in the field of tourism and has potential to be developed as a tourist center. There are several places of interest located in the vicinity of the town. These include Kakolat Waterfall (24km from town), Sekho Devra Ashram (Sarvodaya Ashram was established here in Kowakole block by Jaiprakash Narayan and inaugurated by Dr. Rajendra Prasad), Hariya Sun Temple (located in Hariya village under Nardiganj block), Baba Majaar and Hanuman Temple (located on NH 31, a shrine of Hazrat Saiyyad Shah Jalaluddin Bukhari and a Hanuman temple), Jarra Baba (located in Sirdalla), Hanuman Mandir (located in Kendua village) and Maa Bageshwari Mandir (located in Jamuawa, in 3 km of Jamui road of Nawada in side of Sakri River).
Demographic Data :-
According to census-2011 record, the total population of district is 2,219,146 with the male & female population being 1,144,668 & 1,074,478 respectively & the total house hold is 337,353.
Administrative Unit :-
Nawada was formed a separate district in 1973 from Gaya district. The district is moderately sized measuring approx. 2494 square kms in area. At present, it has 2 sub- divisions, 14 blocks, 14 circle offices, 1- Nagar Parishad, 02 Nagar Panchayats, 187 Panchayats, 1099 RevenueVillages, 21 police stations. Its surrounding districts are Nalanda in the North, Sheikhpura & Jamui District in the East, Gaya district in the west and Koderma & Giridih districts of the state of Jharkhand lie on the South. It is located under Gaya Division.